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“語言科学研究”的计划报告

发布时间: 2014-05-01     来源:

“語言科学研究”的计划报告

冯胜利

2013627

 

一、背景:语言科学的出现

1.1.语法分析是一種技術/藝術

50年中期,老一辈国际著名语言学家Hockett Charles (1958) A Course in Modern Linguistics (P147)里面指出:

“Specialists have been working for a long time on the problem of analyzing, describing, and comparing grammatical systems and the degree of accuracy achieved is much greater than the layman world suspect. At the same time, there remain many pints on which precision is till impossible. Some linguists like to believe that grammatical analysis has become a completely objective operation, but this is not true. Phonemic analysis has been brought much nearer such a state: complete precision is not always possible, but we can at least pinpoint the areas of indeterminacy and usually see why they remain indeterminate. But grammatical analysis is still, to a surprising extent, an art: the best and clearest descriptions of language are achieved not by investigators who follow some rigid set of rules, but by those who through some accident of life-history have developed a flair for it.” 

有些语言学家很乐观地认为:语法分析已然成为完全客观的操作,但这不是事实。语音实验学近乎这种境界但语法分析还任然处在,令人惊奇的艺术境地。(霍恺得1958年)

 

1.2.当代语言学的革命

然而,就在同时,Robert Lee 在他的“Review of Syntactic Structure (1957:377-378) 吹响了当代语言科学的号角:

“Chomsky’s book on syntactic structures is one of the first serious attempts on the part of a linguist to construct within the tradition of scientific theory-construction a comprehensive theory of language which may be understood in the same sense that a chemical, biological theory is ordinarily understood by experts in those fields. It is not a mere reorganization of the data into a new kind of library catalogue, nor another speculative philosophy about the nature of Man and Language, but rather a rigorous explication of our intuitions about our language in terms of an overt axiom system, the theorems derivable from it, explicit results which may be compared with new data and other intuitions, all based plainly on an overt theory of the internal structure of languages; and it may well provide an opportunity for the application of explicit measures of simplicity to decide preference of one form over another form of grammar.” 乔姆斯基的《句法结构》是第一个首次以语言学家的身份认真严肃地尝试在科学理论构建传统之下建立的一个有关语言的整理理论 —— 一个在化学或生物学领域、为其中科学家所理解的意义上的理论;他不是类似于把(语言)材料重新组织为图书馆的分类条目,也不是有关人与语言自然属性的哲学设论;而是有关我们自然语感的,一种严格清晰的、诸多定理可以由此派生的公理系统。

 

Robert所说的 “科学理论”的要点是The Key Points:

(1)   The tradition of scientific theory-construction 科学理论构建的传统

(2)   An overt axiom system 明确的公理系统

(3)   Theorems derivable from it 公理可派生的定理

 

1.3. 什么是“公理系统axiom-system” ?什么是“可派生定理derivable theorems”呢?

Marks Tomas 在他的Formal Sciences2005)里面说道:It is important to recognize that the theories grouped together beneath the term Formal Science all utilize some form of the axiomatic-deductive method and that, therefore, despite their many differences, they all involve the deduction of consequences (i.e., theorems) from a small set of intuitively obvious axioms or assumptions, and, as a result, they can be viewed as being unified by the same basic scientific method……. In order for an axiomatic-deductive system to be constructed at all, it is necessary to be able to state initial assumptions, to identify primary elements of some kind, and to make valid deductive inferences from these assumptions and elements. There are many areas of research that are not understood with sufficient precision to permit an axiomatic-deductive analysis. However, the ‘formal sciences’ all attempt to utilize this methodology, and it is one of their characteristic features.” “关键要注意的是:在形式科学这个概念下的(所有)理论,都使用不同形式的“公理-演绎”法,因此,除却其中的种种不同外,它们无不含有从“少数几个经验上显在公理或公设assumptions来推演结果(定理)”的演绎,因此,它们都可以被统一地看做是这一科学方法的产物。……‘形式科学’无不以此为其方法论,可以说这是它的属性特质之一。

 

“形式科学 Formal Science”的基本特征(characteristic features    

1公理-演绎法axiomatic-deductive method

2结果(或定理)的推演deduction of consequences (i.e., theorems)

3构建公理演绎系统an axiomatic-deductive system的必要程序

(1)建立元始公设state initial assumptions;

(2)鉴定基本元素identify primary elements;

(3)基于(1)(2)的逻辑有效的推衍make valid deductive inferences from these assumptions and elements;

综上所述,当代生成语言学已然具备了“形式科学”基本特征,属于科学的范畴。这是人类历史上的第一次,世称“乔木斯基革命”。几年前生成语法学家Larson的句法教材直接取名为:“Grammar as Science作为科学的语言学

 

详见附件。

    <li></li>網站資料——“作為科學的語言學-天津大學講演”.doc
 
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